The border history of England and Scotland:Accounts of remarkable antiquities and a variety George Ridpath
Beyond Borders: A History of Mexican Migration to the United States details the origins and evolution of the movement of people from Mexico into the United States from the first significant flow across the border at the turn of the 20th century up to the present day. Considers the issues from the perspectives of both the United States and Mexico. Offers a reasoned assessment of the factors that drive Mexican immigration, explains why so many of the policies enacted in Washington have only worsened the problem, and suggests what policy options might prove more effective. Argues that the problem of Mexican immigration can only be solved if Mexico and the United States work together to reduce the disequilibrium that propels Mexican immigrants to the United States. 1. Language: English. Narrator: David Doersch. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/adbl/010402/bk_adbl_010402_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
The history of the border between Mexico and the United States extends alongside 200 years and 2,000 miles - the tortuous epic of a man-made line that has not only hardened and become more solid over time, but has changed meanings too. In the beginning, it was an idea - the approximate and inhospitable edge of the vast Spanish Empire and the beginning of no man´s land. Then, it was a line on paper - a porous boundary with no physical barriers. In times of peace, it was a place of trade and cooperation; in times of conflict, it was the point where two different peoples clashed, as well as the meeting of the North and South of international geopolitics. Two centuries ago, the border was formed by vast deserts and dangerous regions in which nobody wanted to live - a vaguely defined and surveyed boundary. Today, in the second decade of the 21st century, despite being located in one of the most inclement habitats in the world, it is also the world´s busiest. It functions like a country in itself considering the volume of economic operations carried out across the line, not to mention being one of the most monitored regions of the planet. Some experts have even called it a low-warfare zone. Consider, for comparison´s sake, the border between Belgium and the Netherlands, where crossing means going from one pub to another, and it is hardly realized when one leaves one nation or the other. Or consider the open limits of Poland and Ukraine, which consists of beautiful green pastures decorated with all kinds of art. How did the border of Mexico and the United States transition from a wilderness to an overpopulated, violent, dynamic, buoyant, culturally dynamic land in such a relatively short time, where a plethora of legal and illegal goods cross in both directions? Curiously, there was a time when the two countries were not even neighbors. France was between them, possessing the vast land of the Louisiana territory, where Napoleon wanted to establish a French 1. Language: English. Narrator: Scott Clem. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/079871/bk_acx0_079871_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
The Border-History of England and Scotland:Deduced from the Earliest Times to the Union of the two Crowns George Ridpath
The Korean War was a watershed event for a number of reasons. Not only was it considered the first military action of the Cold War, as well as one of the first to utilize jet planes kitted out with bombs and missiles, the United Nations immersed itself in the precarious politics of warfare for the very first time. A total of 41 countries gifted shiploads of provisions and equipment to South Korea. Another 16 countries provided their own soldiers to serve as backup for the South Koreans. Their mission, put simply, was to extinguish Communism on the Korean peninsula once and for all. After a series of heated but unproductive negotiations that lasted two brutal years and 17 miserable days, North Korea and South Korea found themselves locked in a stalemate. Finally, on July 27, 1953, representatives from both parties gathered at the village of Panmunjom, located on a semi-neutral zone by the border. Here, they devised a document entitled the Korean Armistice Agreement and scrawled their names across the bottom of the parchment, calling for a ceasefire, effective immediately. In essence, this agreement was no more than a truce, for there were no victors. The agreement merely ensured ´´a suspension of open hostilities,´´ a ´´transfer of POWs,´´ and lastly, the formal establishment of the demilitarization zone, better known as the DMZ. To this day, no peace treaty has ever been signed. Despite the fact the border between North Korea and South Korea remains tense, and former President Bill Clinton once branded it the ´´scariest place on Earth,´´ more than 7.5 million tourists have visited the notorious demilitarized zone for one reason or another. There, they gazed upon a treacherous but evidently intriguing strip of land, guarded by estranged brothers with a chilling array of weapons directed at one another at all times. The Korean Demilitarized Zone: The History and Legacy of the Border Between North Korea and South Korea examines one of th 1. Language: English. Narrator: Dan Gallagher. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/102476/bk_acx0_102476_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
British India ultimately covered some 54 percent of the landmass and 77 percent of the population. By the time the British began to contemplate a withdrawal from India, 565 princely states were officially recognized, in addition to thousands of zamindaris and jagirs, which were in effect feudal estates. The stature of each princely state was defined by the number of guns fired in salute upon a ceremonial occasion honoring one or other of the princes. These ranged from nine-gun to 21-gun salutes and, in a great many cases, no salute at all.The princely states were reasonably evenly spread between ancient Muslim and Hindu dynasties, but bearing in mind the minority status of Muslims in India, Muslims were disproportionately represented. This tended to grant Muslims an equally disproportionate share of what power was devolved to local leaderships, and it positioned powerful Muslim leaders to exert a similarly unequal influence on British policy.It stands to reason, therefore, as India began the countdown to independence after World War II, that the Indian Muslim leadership would begin to express anxiety over the prospect of universal suffrage and majority rule. At less than 20 percent of the population, Indian Muslims would inevitably find themselves overwhelmed by the Hindu majority, and as the British prepared to divest themselves of India, ancient enmities between Hindu and Muslim, long papered over by the secular and remote government of Britain, began once again to surface.While the conflict between India and Pakistan is multifaceted, there has always been great division over the Punjab. The word ´´Punjab” derives from the Persian words ´´Punj”, meaning ´´five”, and ´´äb”, meaning ´´river´´, combined into the ´´Land of the Five Rivers”. These rivers are the five major tributaries of the River Indus - the Jehlum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, and the Sutlej. They flow southwest off the southern 1. Language: English. Narrator: Jim D Johnston. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/139646/bk_acx0_139646_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Gujarat is one of the most storied sites in a storied area. Many groups and empires ruled India or tried to, and Gujarat was the power center for the region’s oldest of all, the Indus Valley Civilization. It also played an instrumental role in India’s greatest ancient empire. During the last centuries of the first millennium BCE, most of the Mediterranean basin and the Near East were either directly or indirectly under the influence of Hellenism. Although some of the Hellenistic kingdoms proved to be powerful in their own rights, no single one ever proved to be dominant. They battled each other for supremacy and attempted to claim new lands, especially to the east, in lands that the Greeks referred to generally as India. But a dynasty came to power that put most of the Indian subcontinent under the rule of one king.At less than 20 percent of the population, Indian Muslims would inevitably find themselves overwhelmed by the Hindu majority, and as the British prepared to divest themselves of India, ancient enmities between Hindu and Muslim began once again to surface. At the heart of the geopolitical dispute that resulted is Kashmir, which has often been described as the most beautiful place on earth, but also the most dangerous. Nestled between the Karakoram mountains to the north and the Himalayas to the south, the Vale of Kashmir is a place of mythic beauty, in part the inspiration for James Hilton’s Shangri-La, and certainly one of the most unspoiled and lovely regions of South Asia. It also, however, happens to be the fault line of a bitter conflict between two major regional powers, India and Pakistan.While the conflict is multifaceted, there has always been great division over the Punjab. The word Punjab derives from the Persian words Punj, meaning ´´five”, and äb, meaning river, combined into the ´´Land of the Five Rivers”. These rivers are the five major tributaries of the River Indus - the Jehlum, the Chenab 1. Language: English. Narrator: Jim Johnston. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/141011/bk_acx0_141011_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.